Sorting out herbicide resistant traits in soybeans

first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest By Mark Loux, Ohio State University ExtensionThe world of soybean herbicide resistance traits has gotten more complex over the past several years. The good news is that we have new options for control of herbicide-resistant weeds, although it can be a little difficult to sort out which one is best for a given situation and whether the possible downsides of certain traits are tolerable. The following is a quick rundown of what’s available and some things to consider when selecting seed. This is not meant to be an extensive evaluation/description of these systems because including all the possible configurations of herbicide use and the stewardship stuff would probably kill the possibility that anyone reads the rest of the article. We also do not attempt to include all of the possible seed trade names. For ratings of herbicide effectiveness on certain weeds, check the tables in the “Weed Control Guide for Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois.” Roundup Ready (RR1, RR 2 Yield, etc.) – the original herbicide resistance trait. Resistant to glyphosate which can be applied anytime up through R2. LibertyLink – resistant to glufosinate (Liberty, Interline, etc.) which can be applied anytime up to R1. LL-GT27 (Freedom Plus, etc.) – resistant to glyphosate, glufosinate, and isoxaflutole (Balance), although there is currently no isoxaflutole product approved for use in these soybeans. Enlist – resistant to glyphosate, glufosinate, and 2,4-D. Enlist One (2,4-D choline) and Enlist Duo (2,4-D choline + glyphosate) are the only 2,4-D products approved for preemergence and postemergence use on this soybean, outside of the typical use of 2,4-D ester 7 or more days ahead of planting that works on any soybean. These products can be used any time before or after planting Enlist soybeans without a waiting period as well as postemergence through R2 Roundup Ready Xtend – resistant to glyphosate and dicamba. XtendiMax, FeXapan, andEngenia are the dicamba products approved for preemergence and postemergence use on this soybean. These products can be applied any time before or after Xtend soybean planting without a waiting period, as well as postemergence (prior to R1 and no later than 45 days after planting).Note: Dicamba and 2,4-D are different herbicides. Dicamba cannot be applied to Enlist soybeans and 2,4-D cannot be applied to Xtend soybeans. Just like glyphosate cannot be applied to LibertyLink soybeans and glufosinate cannot be applied to Roundup Ready soybeans. Seems obvious but it’s a surprisingly frequent question. All of these soybean herbicide trait systems have utility in certain situations. Factors determining this are the resistant weeds present and the type of tillage. The primary resistant weed issues in Ohio, which require herbicides other than glyphosate, are marestail, giant and common ragweed, waterhemp, and Palmer amaranth. Here are a few things to consider, all of which assume that some type of residual herbicides are being used, regardless of the specific weed issues.Any type of tillage that mixes the upper few inches of soil and uproots weeds often renders marestail more or less a non-issue but does not really greatly affect the other weeds listed here. Marestail can often be handled well enough with a combination of fall burndown and spring burndown + residual, although the residuals are not bulletproof. Otherwise, use of Xtend soybeans and a preemergence dicamba product provides an effective alternative for spring burndown of marestail, as well as a dicamba POST option. The ability to use higher rates of 2,4-D at planting in the Enlist system does not usually result in effective marestail burndown without a fall treatment, although it can be followed with a POST application of glufosinate and/or 2,4-D. The combination of PRE and POST has allowed for effective control in our research with Enlist. LibertyLink and the LL-GT27 soybean provide for the POST use of glufosinate to control marestail, but do not change the burndown options (glufosinate can be used for burndown in any type of soybean, prior to emergence).Giant ragweed requires initial control through tillage or burndown herbicides, and also postemergence control. Most populations have lost response to glyphosate and some are highly resistant. Burndown has not usually been an issue as long as there’s a way to get some 2,4-D, dicamba, or Sharpen in the mix, so there’s not necessarily an advantage to any of these systems. With the exception that the Enlist and Xtend systems allow more flexibility in use of 2,4-D or dicamba, respectively, since there’s no wait between application and planting. Using any system besides the basic Roundup Ready will also provide for more effective POST control, although the edge usually goes to systemic herbicides on bigger plants. Rate and application parameters have a substantial effect on glufosinate activity, and optimization of these parameters can make the difference between so-so and effective control. These same considerations apply to common ragweed as well.Waterhemp and Palmer amaranth require essentially the same approach, with the emphasis on residual and postemergence herbicides. Postemergence control is complicated by herbicide resistance, need for plants to be small, and emergence that extends well into the growing season. We assume almost all of the waterhemp populations are resistant to glyphosate and site 2 herbicides, and a number of populations are also resistant to site 14 herbicides. So, a system that allows postemergence use of 2,4-D, dicamba, or glufosinate will provide for the most consistently effective control. All of these can become considerably more variable in effectiveness on larger plants. And all can require the addition of a site 15 residual herbicide to provide control of later-emerging plants. We would consider Enlist to have an advantage over the Xtend, LibertyLink, and LL-GT27 soybeans because it’s the only system where we know we can still mix two postemergence herbicides that are still effective — 2,4-D and glufosinate. Postemergence control in Xtend depends upon dicamba, and in LibertyLink and LL-GT27 depends upon glufosinate.Advantages to Enlist are two-fold: 1) the mix of 2,4-D and glufosinate will be more consistently effective on larger waterhemp than any of these herbicides applied singly; and 2) mixing two herbicides with different sites of action that still have activity reduces the selection for resistance. It’s a game of chance really, with the odds of a plant having two concurrent mutations that confer resistance to both sites of action is considerably lower (but not impossible) than the odds of a single mutation conferring resistance to one site of action.Even when the Xtend soybean has glufosinate resistance added to its genetics, it’s hard to fathom how one could mix dicamba and glufosinate while still optimizing glufosinate activity and following dicamba stewardship guidelines. This is of course not to say that the mix of two herbicides is always more effective than a single herbicide, although this is probably one of the founding principles of weed science. Similar principles apply to Palmer amaranth control, except that it’s found only infrequently in Ohio still and we have not observed resistance to site 14 herbicides yet.Some seed dealers have stopped offering the basic Roundup Ready seed, because of the lack of POST options for these weeds. Assuming marestail has been taken care of by burndown + residual, it is possible to make this system work by adding a site 14 herbicide (fomesafen product or Cobra) to POST glyphosate treatments. This will be a generally more variable approach than using one of the other systems, and usually results in some degree of soybean injury. Some waterhemp and common ragweed populations are already resistant to both glyphosate and site 14 herbicides, and Roundup Ready soybeans will not work in these fields (same goes for non-GMO since site 14 herbicides are the only POST option).Needless to say, there are extensive stewardship guidelines for the Xtend and Enlist systems, which can make them more burdensome to use than the LibertyLink and LL-GT systems. The large-scale experiment with dicamba on millions of acres over the past several years has led university weed scientists to conclude that there is an unpredictable component to its off-target movement that is not necessarily controlled by following stewardship guidelines. This is not to say that it always moves off-target of course, it’s just something that should be considered when decisions about which trait system to use are made. We hope that the same does not occur for 2,4-D use on Enlist soybeans, but the large-scale experiment with this technology starts in 2020, so it remains to be seen.There can be issues with applying some of these herbicides in mixtures, and these are still evolving. Even if it does not control the resistant weeds, glyphosate still has utility on most other weeds and can be the cheapest way to control grasses. It can be used in mixtures with the other herbicides mentioned here in all trait systems except the LibertyLink (without the “GT27”). Previous research and field experience have shown that control of barnyardgrass and certain other weeds can be reduced with a mixture of glyphosate and glufosinate, compared with separate applications. Mixing dicamba with postemergence grass herbicides (clethodim etc.) can result in reduced control of volunteer corn. All of these interactions seem to be specific to certain weeds, and also weather conditions in some cases. The bottom line is that there’s probably more to learn about how these herbicides interact in mixtures.For any of these traits, it’s important to take resistance management into consideration. Use an effective residual herbicide program, try to vary herbicide site of action between corn and soybeans, don’t overuse the same postemergence herbicides in soybeans, and use mixtures of different sites of action that have activity on the same weeds. Follow up in mid to late season to remove waterhemp and Palmer amaranth escapes and prevent seed.last_img read more

5 Easy Tips For Creating an Awesome Title Sequence

first_imgGrab your audience from the get-go with a perfectly executed title sequence!In terms of production value, the difference between a project shot for $10,000 and one shot for $1,000,000 isn’t all that different any more. Cameras like the RED EPIC DRAGON have opened up the ability for low budget filmmakers to create final products that can rival productions with many times their budget.Yet, no matter how good the camera tech gets, there are always going to be certain elements that can give away a low budget film – one of which is the opening title sequence. Most commonly, low budget films make one of two choices when it comes to their opening titles. They will either:A) Go overboard and attempt to create a heavily animated After Effects style title sequence, or…B) Will keep things simple and overlay text on the edit itself, or on a black background.Unless you are a professional After Effects artist, I would always recommend going with option B. Attempting to create an elaborate title sequence by yourself will not work 99% of the time, and the vast majority of projects simply don’t need it. In fact, the current trend today with films of all sizes is leaning towards fewer titles (if any) up front, and going for a more minimalistic approach with regards to the design.While there is no such thing as a one size fits all solution for any creative choice, I do recommend following these 5 tips which will keep you basic titles looking clean and professional:1. Keep the font small.One of my biggest pet peeves is watching the title sequence of an independent film, only to be completely thrown off by awkwardly sized titles. There is no reason to have opening titles take up half of your screen real estate, and unless you are intentionally going for a certain look (such as block text that covers almost the whole screen), keep your titles nice and small.I recommend finding a size that is just comfortable enough to read without squinting your eyes, but not much bigger than that. The main title card with the film’s name is the exception to this rule, and you can always have that title appear much larger so it stands out from the rest. However, for any and all other titles, small is almost always better – so never up your font size unless absolutely necessary.2. Choose a tasteful font.This one is going to sound like a no-brainer, but one of the biggest faux-pas that I see with regards to titles are really poor font choices. I highly advise not using any textured fonts. In other words, fonts that have a grungy or spray painted look (or anything else overly stylized) can look very cheap.Again, there are exceptions to this rule as well, but typically clean and simple fonts will always work better. Keep in mind that if your film is successful, it will hopefully be seen for many years to come. So, the last thing you want is to get stuck with a font that ends up dating your movie.While not specifically focused on filmmaking, here’s a great roundup from Grantland’s Rembert Browne that explores the hilariously dated universe of 90s sitcom openings.3. Don’t animate the titles.A few years ago, a trend started that involved animating titles to match the picture. So, for example, there might be a shot of a bus crossing the screen, and then the titles might follow along behind it. This fad has largely died off, yet so many indie filmmakers are still attempting to animate their titles to elements on the screen in hopes that it will add some production value.Simple is always better in my opinion, and 9 times out of 10, you are going to be better off just fading in a static title over picture (or black) than animating it to achieve an unoriginal effect.4. Use framing guides.I can tell from a mile away when an editor hasn’t used framing guides with their titles. One title will fade into the next and they will just be slightly off from each other. Or a main title that is supposed to be centered will feel like it’s off to one side or the other.It takes you practically no time to turn on your framing guides and snap your titles to the right position on the screen, so whatever you do, please make sure you don’t skimp out on this step.5. Avoid drop shadows.I mentioned above that certain font choices can really date the look of your film, and the use of drop shadows can pose the same issue. Drop shadows can look okay in certain circumstances, especially when they are part of the overall aesthetic of the film’s brand, however they should never be used simply because the text needs to stand out more. For example, if you are trying to put one of your title cards on a shot that has a high contrast background, and the title isn’t showing up properly – you might be tempted to add a drop shadow. This is the logical thing to do, but at the same time it will change the overall feel of your titles. If you absolutely have to use drop shadows, then go for it – but just make sure that you use them across the board on all of your titles so at least there is a sense of consistency.Interested in reading more about the art of the title sequence? Check out these articles from the PremiumBeat blog.Creative Inspiration: The History of the Title SequenceCreate a ‘True Detectives’ Style Title Sequence in After EffectsCinema 4D Tutorial: Create Animated Title SequencesWhat are some of your favorite movie title sequences? What’s the secret to making a title sequence stand out? Let’s discuss in the comments below.last_img read more

CMP Acquires Gartner Events Business for 114 Million

first_imgCMP has agreed to buy Gartner’s Vision Events business for $11.4 million, the company announced today. The deal is expected to be finalized within the next two weeks.Vision is a provider of face-to-face IT events that “maximize a return on investment for participants,” according to the company. Vision will be added to CMP Channel’s events portfolio.The Jordan, Edmiston Group represented Gartner in the transaction.last_img

NOW HIRING 40 New Job Openings In Wilmington Week of December 30 2018

first_imgWILMINGTON, MA — Below are job listings previously published on Wilmington Apple during the week of December 30, 2018:Part-Time Teller at Reading Cooperative BankFull-Time Mill Metal Worker at Tecomet, Inc.Full-Time Inside Sales Representative at Sager ElectronicsFull-Time General Manager at Couto Management GroupFull-Time Business Development Manager at KochPart-Time Tax Intern at Osram SylvaniaPart-Time Product Engineering Intern at Analog DevicesFull-Time Residential Counselor II at VinfenPart-Time Sales Floor Team Member at TargetFull-Time Cook at Glendale Senior DiningFull-Time Customer Success Manager at Casamba, LLCFull-Time Residential Assistant Program Manager at NuPath, Inc.Full-Time Chemical Mix Operator at Lubrizol CorporationFull-Time Heating & Cooling Technician at Super Service TodayFull-Time Drain Cleaning Expert at Super Service TodayFull-Time Sales Manager at Bill Dube HyundaiFull-Time Parts Department Professional at Bill Dube HyundaiFull-Time Automotive Sales Professional at Bill Dube HyundaiFull-Time Assembly Operator at Koch Chemical Full-Time Chemical Operator at Koch ChemicalFull-Time Jr. Data Steward at Heilind ElectronicsFull-Time Service Technician at Cochrane VentilationFull-Time Entry Level Solar Site Surveyor at Vivint SolarPart-Time Merchandise Relief at Frito LayFull-Time Display Media Specialist at World Travel HoldingsFull-Time Marketing Quality Assurance Tester at World Travel HoldingsFull-Time eCommerce Web Analyst at World Travel HoldingsFull-Time IT Business Analyst at World Travel HoldingsFull-Time Manager I (Enterprise Direct Sales) at ComcastFull-Time Cargo Van Delivery Driver at Optima ShippingFull-Time System Administrator at UniFirstFull-Time Global Sourcing Specialist at UniFirstFull-Time Accounts Payable Clerk at AramarkFull-Time Service Technician at AramarkFull-Time Teacher at May InstituteFull-Time Teacher Assistant at May InstitutePart-Time Home Health Aide at Associated Home CareFull-Time Package Handler at FedExPart-Time Servers at 99 RestaurantPart-Time Bus/Server Assistant at Red Heat TavernLong-Term Substitute Grade 8 English Language Arts Teacher at Wilmington Middle SchoolLong-Term Substitute Reading Specialist at Wilmington Middle SchoolSubstitute Teachers, Educational Assistants, Nurses & LPNs at Wilmington Public Schools(NOTE: Wilmington businesses — Feel free to send me your job postings at wilmingtonapple@gmail.com.)Like Wilmington Apple on Facebook. Follow Wilmington Apple on Twitter. Follow Wilmington Apple on Instagram. Subscribe to Wilmington Apple’s daily email newsletter HERE. Got a comment, question, photo, press release, or news tip? Email wilmingtonapple@gmail.com.Share this:TwitterFacebookLike this:Like Loading… RelatedNOW HIRING: 10 New Job Openings In WilmingtonIn “Business”NOW HIRING: 60 New Job Openings In Wilmington (Week of August 11, 2019)In “Business”NOW HIRING: 60 New Job Openings In Wilmington (Week of July 7, 2019)In “Business”last_img read more

Indian American Satya Nadella Anointed as Microsoft CEO Expected Challenges Ahead

first_imgWe saw India’s two eminent personalities – Scientist Dr. CNR Rao and cricket legend Sachin Tendulkar – getting honoured with the nation’s highest civilian award, Bharat Ratna, on Tuesday. And just a few hours later, on the same day in the USA, another Indian – Satya Nadella – was anointed as the new CEO of software technology giant Microsoft, making him the most influential Indian tech-executive in the world.Microsoft board of directors, after five months of scrutiny, finally chose company veteran Satya (aka Satyanarayana) Nadella, 46, as the replacement for the retiring CEO Steve Ballmer.”During this time of transformation, there is no better person to lead Microsoft than Satya Nadella,” said Bill Gates, co-founder and former chairman of board of directors, Microsoft.”Satya is a proven leader with hard-core engineering skills, business vision and the ability to bring people together. His vision for how technology will be used and experienced around the world is exactly what Microsoft needs as the company enters its next chapter of expanded product innovation and growth,” Gates added.Ballmer has officially relinquished the CEO post (though he will continue to be part of the board of directors) and Gates has passed the chairman of board of directors baton to John Thompson. The company founder has been assigned to the new position of technology advisor.Meanwhile, newly crowned Microsoft CEO Nadella said: “Microsoft is one of those rare companies to have truly revolutionized the world through technology, and I couldn’t be more honored to have been chosen to lead the company.”The opportunity ahead for Microsoft is vast, but to seize it, we must focus clearly, move faster and continue to transform. A big part of my job is to accelerate our ability to bring innovative products to our customers more quickly.”[Also Read: 10 Facts You Should Know About Microsoft’s New CEO, Satya Nadella]New Microsoft CEO’s Challenges Ahead:New CEO Nadella’s immediate challenge will be to form a core team to envision future technology to move forward the Microsoft business. It also means that he will be tested to show his co-ordination skills with the board members, including his internal competitors (Skype head Tony Bates and company COO Kevin Turner), who both lost the CEO race to him.Nadella will also have the responsibility of pivoting the company’s transformation phase as Microsoft completes the acquisition of Nokia later in March.  Another sector which is expected to get his attention would be the Windows Phone OS ecosystem, which is way behind market leaders, such as Apple and Google (they account more than 90-percent smart devices globally). If the company wants to consolidate its foothold in the ever-growing smartphone business, Nadella is expected to infuse the same driving force, using Nokia’s branded Lumia series, in emerging markets like Africa, South East Asia (including India) as the developed markets begin to saturate in coming years.Apart from smartphones, Nadella has his task cut out to turn the loss-making Surface tablet series to profits, as well as improve the marketing of company’s flagship Xbox gaming console, which is in competition with the Sony PlayStation series.With the advent of low-cost smart devices (like smartphones and tablet PCs), we have already witnessed a drop in desktop PC sales globally, and further adding to the woes is the disappointing response to the new Windows 8 PC OS. Nadella will be expected to infuse some driving force to revive the lost sheen of Windows OS, like he spearhead Microsoft’s ‘Cloud and Enterprise’ in 2011; the division has grown from $16.6 billion to $20.3 billion (as of June 2013).last_img read more

SBI launches bond series index at London Stock Exchange

first_imgState Bank of India Chairperson Arundhati Bhattacharya.IANSPublic sector lender State Bank of India (SBI), in partnership with FTSE Russell, on Friday brought out a new index series at the London Stock Exchange to enable investors and market participants to track Indian bond movement, according to a PTI report.”We have teamed up with FTSE Russell to launch the FTSE- SBI Bond Index Series. This index will act as a key benchmark for Indian debt for foreign investors looking to invest in Indian debt market,” said the report quoting SBI Chairman Arundhati Bhattacharya.FTSE Russell is a global data and analytics provider. The FTSE SBI Bond Index Series “demonstrates SBI’s commitment to play befitting leadership role” in development of India’s bond market, the bank said in a statement.”This index is also an important enabler of India-focused funds and is expected to facilitate investment flows,” the bank said.SBI said that this initiative has been announced as a priority under the India UK financial partnership (IUKFP).Bhattacharya hoped that the launch would significantly contribute to development and broadening of the Indian bond market. The index series, SBI said, provides the global investor community and other market participants the tools they need to analyse India’s bond market.The launch follows the November 2015 visit of Prime Minister Narendra Modi to the UK when a letter of intent was signed between SBI and FTSE to jointly develop the new index tracking Indian fixed income securities.SBI shares ended lower on Friday’s trade by 2.46 percent at Rs 261.90 per share on BSE.last_img read more