It’s been said that there are no atheists in foxholes, but a new study led by Joseph Henrich has shown that the impact of war on religion extends well beyond the front lines.The chair of the Department of Human and Evolutionary Biology, Henrich and a team of international collaborators gathered survey data from several locations around the globe and found that, following the trauma of seeing a friend or loved one killed or injured during conflict, many became more religious. The study is described in a Jan. 28 paper published in Nature Human Behavior.“I became interested in this question through my prior work, which has been focused on how religious beliefs can cause people to cooperate more in a group,” Henrich said. “The idea is that if you can expand the sphere of cooperation, then that group can more successfully compete against others, sometimes even through violent conflict.“But this study suggests that this could lead to a vicious circle,” Henrich continued. “If you receive a war shock and become very religious, and then begin to outcompete other groups through conflict, that could result in a runaway effect.”To understand the relationship between war and religion, Henrich and his colleagues gathered data from more than 1,700 interviews with people in 71 villages scattered throughout Sierra Leone, Tajikistan, and Uganda. Their results showed that, among those who were most exposed to war, membership in religious groups increased by 12, 14, and 41 percentage points, respectively.In addition, the researchers found that those who experienced the trauma of war were likelier to attend religious services and were likelier to rank religion as being significant in their lives than those who were not. And in some cases, those effects were surprisingly long-lived.“One of the more interesting findings was that in some cases we found the effect endures,” Henrich said. “In Tajikistan we find the effect even 13 years post-conflict, and there’s no sense in which it declines.” The three locations were selected, he said, because although all three had experienced civil conflict, none of them included a clear religious or ethnic dimension.“In places like Sierra Leone, both the rebels and the government would go into villages and fire indiscriminately,” Henrich explained. “Some people would be killed or injured and others wouldn’t. That creates a natural experiment — some people are more exposed to the war and some people are less exposed, and then we were able to look at the effect of having this shock on their religiosity.”Importantly, Henrich said, the study only compared those changes in religious devotion among individuals in the same village.“There could be many reasons why people in different villages might be more or less religious,” Henrich said. “It could also be that a particular village was attacked more than another, but by comparing people from the same village we were able to eliminate that variation.”Ultimately, though, Henrich said the study supports the notion, often embraced by historians, that war can drive social changes down the road.“It could affect the direction in which institutions evolve, or the policies that governments pursue,” he suggested. “And there are policy implications as well, because if you’re concerned about religious extremism and you deal with it through violence, then you could make it worse.“Because it has this psychological effect, when you shock a population … new institutions that were impossible previously are more likely to emerge,” he added. “So these war shocks may redirect history in different directions by reshaping institutions and influencing how people think.”This research was supported with funding from the Cultural Evolution of Religion Research Consortium, the John Templeton Foundation, the Czech Science Foundation, Title VIII/Department of State, and the University of San Francisco. Related Religion as social unifier Belief in a deity helps humans cooperate and live in large groups, studies say
Star Files View Comments Related Shows Three-time Broadway.com Audience Choice Award winner Sierra Boggess has enrolled in Andrew Lloyd Webber’s School of Rock—The Musical! Directed by Les Miz’s Laurence Connor and starring Alex Brightman, the production will begin sticking it to the man on November 9 and officially open on December 6 at the Main Stem’s Winter Garden Theatre.Boggess, who is currently starring in It Shoulda Been You on the Great White Way, told Broadway.com exclusively: “I am so thrilled to be part of Andrew Lloyd Webber’s newest musical! It’s such a joyous show and I know audiences are going to have the best time!” In a statement, the composer said: “Sierra is a magical performer. She was a brilliant Christine Daaé in Phantom, and I’m delighted she’ll have this chance to show off her considerable comedic chops in the role of the Rosalie in School of Rock.”Rosalie is the role of the headmistress, a part Boggess played in the initial reading of the piece. She is a long-time Lloyd Webber collaborator, having played Christine in The Phantom of the Opera multiple times and receiving an Olivier nod for originating the role in the long-running tuner’s sequel Love Never Dies. Boggess has also appeared on Broadway in The Little Mermaid and Master Class; her West End credits additionally include Les Miserables.School of Rock features music from the hit 2003 movie, as well as new music written by Lloyd Webber and lyricist Glenn Slater, with a book by Downton Abbey’s Julian Fellowes. The film was penned by Mike White, directed by Richard Linklater and starred Jack Black as wannabe rock star Dewey Finn, who poses as a substitute teacher at a prestigious prep school. When he discovers his students’ musical talents, he enlists his fifth-graders to form a rock group and conquer the Battle of the Bands.Brightman starred as Dewey in the recent workshop of the show, which had Sara Chase, who is returning to Kimmy Schmidt, as Rosalie. No word yet on additional Broadway casting, but they were joined in the tryout by Leslie Kritzer as Patty (Ned’s mean girlfriend) and Andrew Durand as Ned (Dewey’s bestie). The students included Taylor Caldwell as Shonelle, Evie Dolan as Katie, Aaron Fig as James, Carly Gendell as Marcy, Shayan Hooshmand as Mason, Bobbi Mackenzie as Tomika, Dante Melucci as Freddy, Brandon Niederauer as Zack, Luca Padovan as Billy, Jared Parker as Lawrence, Isabella Russo as Summer, Malachi Samedy as Leonard, Mikayla White as Madison and Corinne Wilson as Sophia. Show Closed This production ended its run on Jan. 20, 2019 School of Rock – The Musical Sierra Boggess
By Julieta Pelcastre/Diálogo October 10, 2017 The Air Maintenance Command (CAMAN, per its Spanish acronym) of the Colombian Air Force (FAC, per its Spanish acronym) exchanged knowledge and experiences with its peers in the Ecuadorean Air Force (FAE, per its Spanish acronym). The meeting was held from June 27th to August 26th at Madrid Air Base in Cundinamarca, Colombia. The training was part of the “Major Aviation Maintenance Training Course and Specialization” for Ecuador’s A-29 Super Tucano landing gear. It is part of the current cooperation agreements between the FAC and FAE, in order for both nations’ military aviation to be updated with new procedures and doctrinal training. Major maintenance, also known as overhaul, is done to aviation components when they reach the end of the life cycle recommended by the equipment’s manufacturer. In this case, the landing gear should complete 5,000 landings or six years of use. The work consisted of completely disassembling the component and performing nondestructive testing to ensure the operability of the pieces in order to extend their useful life cycle, the FAC reported. Spare parts were brought in from Ecuador as part of the certification training. “The Colombian Air Force has broad experience in this complex overhaul task. Ecuador needs to build this capacity,” First Sergeant Nestor Tinitana of the FAE told Diálogo. “At present, our planes are grounded because we need to overhaul them.” During the training sessions, workshops on different aviation components, such as hydraulics, were involved. The hydraulics workshop was the most important because it involved assembling, inspecting, cleaning, painting, and using electro-chemistry on certain parts, as well as a session on nondestructive testing. “They were taught how to use special tools and were taught about technical orders and test benches,” Chief Master Sergeant Julio César Carillo Tunjano, the chief of inspectors and an advisor to the Hydraulics Workshop for CAMAN’s Air Intelligence Group, told Diálogo. “Now, they can do this servicing at their various air bases.” Upon completing the trainings, the command delivered the landing gear that had undergone maintenance, together with its Colombian certification, which was approved by international institutions. Ready to complete the mission “After attending the various workshops and experimenting, analyzing, and working, the Ecuadorean specialists have the knowledge and experience required to overhaul the landing gear on their A-29 Super Tucano units,” FAC Brigadier General Eduardo Contreras Meléndez, the commander of CAMAN, told Diálogo. The A-29 has very robust landing gear and is able to land on runways as short as 500 meters. This combat aircraft is used mainly by the Brazilian, Chilean, Colombian, Dominican, Ecuadorean, and U.S. air forces in air interception, attack, and surveillance operations. Colombia has 24 units in this class. In Ecuador’s case, its air force acquired 18 Super Tucano units in 2010 to cover the capacity of conducting operations in border areas and the Amazon region. “We’re ready to overhaul these air units in our country,” 1st Sgt. Tinitana reiterated. Keeping up with technological developments To perform landing gear maintenance on the FAE’s A-29 units in Ecuador, a group of engineers and technicians from the lead logistics unit in Colombian aviation will travel to that country to supervise the implementation of major maintenance procedures on the equipment. The Ecuadorian officers who have been trained will be able to reinforce what they have learned and complement their capabilities. “Ecuadorean service members have shown interest in acquiring other capacities in CAMAN through ongoing courses related to ejection seats, the C-130 brake system, and aircraft painting,” 1st Sgt. Tinitana added. “In the future, we’ll overhaul a CASA 295 that we have in FAE.” Both nations are studying the scope of new trainings for FAE. Some agreements are in a development phase to be completed at CAMAN. The Uruguayan, Chilean, and Peruvian air forces are also interested in establishing ties and alliances with Colombia in order to complement their capacities, in accordance with each nation’s needs.
..The ‘Brown Bomber’ fought 69 professional bouts and won 66, 52 by knockoutBy Alan BaldwinLONDON (Reuters) – Boxing fans and historians will always argue over the greatest heavyweight of them all but even Muhammad Ali was willing to admit he might have met his match in Joseph Louis Barrow.“I don’t know if I could have beat him, he really don’t know if he could have beat me,” Ali told wrestling writer Bill Apter in 1976.“But it’s a great possibility because Joe Louis was my idol and he was for me the greatest fighter of all time.”Before Ali came along, there was very little debate about the greatest.The ‘Brown Bomber’ fought 69 professional bouts and won 66, 52 by knockout. He defended his title for 25 successive bouts in a heavyweight record reign that started in 1937 and ended in 1949.Two of the three defeats came late on, when he was fighting mainly to pay the tax authorities, and the end came in October 1951 at the hands of Rocky Marciano.“I’m sorry Joe. I’m sorry it had to be me,” Marciano told him. “You don’t have to be sorry,” replied the fallen great. “You licked me fair and square.”When Louis died of a heart attack in Las Vegas in April 1981 aged 66, president Ronald Reagan paid tribute to a man, with some demons, who fought his way to a special place in the nation’s heart.“Joe Louis was more than a sports legend — his career was an indictment of racial bigotry and a source of pride and inspiration to millions of white and black people around the world,” he said.Louis’s demolition of Adolf Hitler’s heavyweight Max Schmeling at Yankee Stadium in June 1938, after a loss to the German two years earlier, stands out in the annals of 20th century sport.With the storm clouds of World War Two looming, the son of an Alabama sharecropper and grandson of former slaves took two minutes and four seconds to shatter the symbol of supposed Aryan racial superiority.“I had my own personal reasons and the whole damned country was depending on me,” he said.HUMAN RACE One of the first African-American athletes to achieve national hero status, Louis transcended his sport and helped break down racial barriers.“What my father did was enable white America to think of him as an American, not as a black,” his son Joe Louis Jr recalled. “By winning, he became white America’s first black hero.”Jackie Robinson, who in 1947 became the first African American to play in Major League baseball, acknowledged the debt.“I’m sure if it wasn’t for Joe Louis, the colour line in baseball would not have been broken for another 10 years,” he said.A keen amateur golfer, with a course named after him at Riverdale in suburban Chicago, Louis in 1952 became the first black player to appear in an event sanctioned by the PGA, which at the time had a ‘Caucasians only’ clause.To those who declared him “a credit to his race”, the late sportswriter Jimmy Cannon offered the famous reply: “A credit to his race, the human race.”At one point Louis fought an opponent a month for seven months — including the excellently named Johnny Paychek — in what came to be known as the ‘Bum of the Month’ tour.When Billy Conn, who came close to beating the champion in 1941, talked of a ‘hit and run strategy’, Louis replied with a quote for the ages: “He can run, but he can’t hide.”As he observed in another memorable retort: “Everyone has a plan until they’ve been hit.”
Lyon produced a spirited display to take a surprise lead after the first leg of their Champions League last-16 tie with Juventus.Lucas Tousart scored the only goal in the first half as the hosts claimed their first victory over the Italian giants.Juve started confidently but failed to create any clear chances before Tousart converted Houssem Aouar’s cross from close range to hand the Ligue 1 side the lead.The visitors continued to have more possession but they struggled to penetrate the resolute Lyon defence, failing to register a single shot on target.With the clock ticking down, Juve ramped up the pressure, but Paulo Dybala’s late strike was ruled out for offside.The second leg will take place at Allianz Stadium on 17 March Source: BBC Sport Tags: Cristiano RonaldoJuventusLyon